Alternate Title

  • Mandarin

Related Terms

  • Beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, carotenoids, Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium, Citrus reticulata, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus reticulate, Dancy tangerine (Citrus tangerinia), folate, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limonin, limonoid glucoside mixture, limonoids, lutein, magnesium, mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), nomilin, orange (Citrus sinensis), polyphenols, Rutaceae (family), tangeretin, tangerine juice, vitamin C, xanthophyll esters, zeaxanthin.

Background

  • Tangerine (Citrus reticulata) is a citrus fruit that is well known for being sweet and easy to peel. The name tangerine comes from Tangier, Morocco, the port from which the first tangerines were shipped to Europe. Tangerine contains vitamin C, folate, and beta-carotene. In Korea, tangerine peel has traditionally been used to promote liver qi activity and the function of the digestive system.
  • Tangerine may have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, there is currently a lack of available evidence in humans to support the use of tangerine for any medical indication.

Evidence Table

    Disclaimer

    These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

    Disclaimer

    The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

Dosing

    Disclaimer

    The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

  • Adults (over 18 years old):

    • There is no proven effective dose for tangerine in adults.
  • Children (under 18 years old):

    • There is no proven effective dose of tangerine in children.

Safety

    Disclaimer

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

  • Allergies

    • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to tangerine. The essential oil of tangerine in a fragrance has been associated with skin rash.
  • Side Effects and Warnings

    • There are few reports of adverse effects associated with tangerine. However, skin rash has been associated with tangerine essential oil and bowel obstructions have been reported.
    • Use cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, as tangerine has been associated with intestinal obstructions.
    • Use cautiously in patients taking agents for cancer. Also, use cautiously in patients taking agents metabolized by cytochrome P450, as tangerine may stimulate cytochrome P450 3A4. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, to check for interactions.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    • Tangerine is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women in amounts higher than those found in foods due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

    Disclaimer

    Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

  • Interactions with Drugs

    • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine may inhibit Helicobacter pylori. Use cautiously with other antibiotics due to possible additive effects. Preliminary evidence also suggests that tangerine may have antioxidant properties.
    • Tangerine juice may lower cholesterol and triglycerides. Use cautiously with high or low cholesterol or if taking cholesterol-altering medications.
    • In theory, constituents found in citrus fruits, including tangerine, may have additive effects with other anti-inflammatory agents.
    • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine peel or its extracts may have anticancer activity. In addition, tangerine and other Chinese medicinal herbs may decrease the toxic effects of chemotherapy.
    • Tangerine juice may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver’s “cytochrome P450” enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be decreased in the blood and the intended effects may be reduced. Patients taking any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
  • Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

    • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine may inhibit Helicobacter pylori. Caution is advised in patients taking other herbs or supplements with antibacterial activity due to possible additive effects. Preliminary evidence also suggests that tangerine may have antioxidant properties.
    • Tangerine juice may also lower cholesterol and triglycerides. Use cautiously with high or low cholesterol or if taking cholesterol-altering herbs or supplements.
    • In theory, constituents found in citrus fruits, including tangerine, may have additive effects with other herbs with anti-inflammatory effects.
    • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine peel or its extracts may have anticancer activity. In addition, tangerine and other Chinese medicinal herbs may decrease the toxic effects of chemotherapy.
    • Tangerine juice may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver’s “cytochrome P450” enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too low in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements potentially may have on the P450 system.

Attribution

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

Bibliography

    Disclaimer

    Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

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