Stereospermum

While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • 2(4′-Hydroxyphenyl)ethyl undecanoate, 2-methoxy-4-(3′-(3”,4”,5”trimethoxyphenyl)allyloxymethyl)phenol, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl ether, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl 1-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–>6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl 1-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1–>6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 3beta-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, ajugol, alakiriti (Igbo), anthrakunthone, arabinose, ayada (Yoruba), Bignoniaceae (family), (+)-cycloolivil, (+)-cycloolivil 4′-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, (+)-cycloolivil 6-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, decaffeoyl-verbascoside, galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose, Heterophragma chelonoides, Heterophragma suaveolens, isoverbascoside, kursingh (Marathi), (-)-olivil, (-)-olivil 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, pad (Hindu), padal (Marathi), padri (Tamil), padrie (Tamil), pahad (Marathi), Parinari curatellifolia, parul (Bengali), patala (Sanskrit), patla (Chhattisgarhi), p-coumaric acid, pink jacaranda, pinnatal, Prosopis africana, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, pyranokunthone A, pyranokunthone B, rhamnose, sansami (Hausa), sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, specioside, sterekunthal A, sterekunthal B, stereochenol A, stereochenol B, sterequinone A sterequinone B, sterequinone C, sterequinone D, sterequinone E, sterequinone F, sterequinone G, sterequinone H, sterequinone I, stereospermoside, Stereospermum acuminatissimum, Stereospermum chelonoides, Stereospermum colais, Stereospermum cylindricum, Stereospermum dentatum, Stereospermum fimbriatum, Stereospermum kunthianum, Stereospermum personatum, Stereospermum suaveolens, Stereospermum xylocarpum, Stereospermum zenkeri, tagada (Telugu), Terminalia glaucescens, umana (Tiv), vanilloloside, verminoside, zenkequinone A, zenkequinone B

  • Select combination products: Dashamularishta (Aegle marmelos, Desmodium gangeticum, Gmelina arborea, Oroxylum indicum, Premna integrifolia, Solanum indicum, Solanum xanthocarpum, Stereospermum suaveolens, Tribulus terrestris, Uraria lagopoides), Dasamoola (Aegle marmelos, Desmodium gangeticum, Gmelina arborea, Oroxylum idicum, Premna serratifolia, Pseudarthria viscida, Stereospermum colais, Solanum anguivi, Tribulus terrestris), Dasamula (Aegle marmelos, Desmodium gangeticum, Gmelina arborea, Oroxylum idicum, Premna serratifolia, Pseudarthria viscida, Stereospermum colais, Solanum anguivi, Tribulus terrestris), Chyavanprash (Adhatoda zeylanica, Aegle marmelos, Boerhavia diffusa, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma aromatica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Elettaria cardamomum, Fritillaria roylei, Gmelina arborea, Inula racemosa, Leptadenia reticulata, Lilium polyphyllium, Malaxis acuminata, Martynia annua, Mesua ferrea, Nymphaea stellata, Oroxylum indicum, Phaseolus trilobus, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Piper longum, Pistacia kinjuk, Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Premna mucronata, Pueraria tuberosa, Santalum album, Santalum indicum, Sida cordifolia, Solanum indicum, Solanum surattense, Stereospermum suaveolens, Teramnus labialis, Terminalia chebula, Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia, Uraria picta, Vitis vinifera).

Background

  • Stereospermum is a genus of trees in the Bignoniaceae family, native to India and Africa.

  • Stereospermum is used most commonly by traditional healers in Ayurveda and traditional African medicine to treat inflammation and infections. Clinical evidence on Stereospermum is currently lacking in the available literature.

Scientific Evidence

Uses

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.

  • Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, aphrodisiac (increases sexual desire), asthma, astringent, bronchitis, cancer, cardiotonic, constipation, cough, dental conditions, diabetes, diarrhea, diuretic, dropsy (swelling), dyspepsia, ear pain, edema (anasarca, extreme generalized swelling), exhaustion, expectorant, fever, gallbladder stones, gas, gastritis, headache, hemorrhage (excessive bleeding), hemorrhoids, hiccup (hiccough), hypoglycemic agent (blood sugar-lowering agent), kidney stones, leprosy, malaria, mania, mood, muscle weakness, pain relief, parasites, pneumonia, respiratory infections, rheumatoid arthritis, skin eruptions, toothache, ulcers, urinary stones, venereal diseases, vomiting, wound healing.

Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for Stereospermum in adults.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for Stereospermum in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Stereospermum, its constituents, or members of the Bignoniaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • There is currently little information currently available on the adverse effects associated with Stereospermum species.

  • Stereospermum may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or hypoglycemia and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.

  • Use cautiously in people taking agents that affect the immune system.

  • Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women and in children, due to a lack of safety data.

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Stereospermum, its constituents, or members of the Bignoniaceae family.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women and in children, due to a lack of safety data.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • Stereospermum may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. People taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.

  • Stereospermum may interact with agents that affect the immune system, agents that are toxic to cells, agents used to treat diarrhea, agents used to treat parasite infections, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antivirals, and pain relievers.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Stereospermum may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.

  • Stereospermum may interact with herbs and supplements that affect the immune system, herbs and supplements that are toxic to cells, herbs and supplements used to treat diarrhea, herbs and supplements used to treat parasite infections, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antioxidants, antivirals, and pain relievers.

Author Information

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. ChandrashekharVM, Muchandi AA, Sarasvathi VS, et al. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Stereospermum Suaveolens: An In-Vitro Evaluation. Pharmacologyonline 2009;1:50-56.
  2. Ching FP, Omogbai EK, Okpo SO, et al. Antiinflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) Stem Bark in Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009;71(1):106-110. View Abstract
  3. Ching FP, Omogbai EK, Ozolua RI, et al. Antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) stem bark in rodents. African Journal of Biotechnology 2008;7(9):1220-1225.
  4. Ching FP, Omogbai EK, Ozolua RI. Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) stem bark. Acta Pol Pharm 2009;66(1):83-88. View Abstract
  5. Govindarajan R, Singh DP, Rawat AK. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of phenolics in ‘Chyavanprash’ a potent Ayurvedic drug. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2007;43:527-532.
  6. Haque MR, Rahman KM, Iskander MN, et al. Stereochenols A and B, two quinones from Stereospermum chelonoides. Phytochemistry 2006;67(24):2663-2665. View Abstract
  7. Jabbar S, Khan MT, Choudhuri MS, et al. Bioactivity studies of the individual ingredients of the Dashamularishta. Pak J Pharm Sci 2004;17(1):9-17. View Abstract
  8. Kanchanapoom T, Noiarsa P, Otsuka H, et al. Lignan, phenolic and iridoid glycosides from Stereospermum cylindricum. Phytochemistry 2006;67(5):516-520. View Abstract
  9. Kodjo KM, Contesse V, Do Rego JL, et al. In vitro effects of crude extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae), Stereospermum kunthianum (Bignoniaceae) and Biophytum petersianum (Oxalidaceae) on corticosteroid secretion in rat. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2006;100(4-5):202-208. View Abstract
  10. Kumar US, Aparna P, Rao RJ, et al. 1-Methyl anthraquinones and their biogenetic precursors from Stereospermum personatum. Phytochemistry 2003;63(8):925-929. View Abstract
  11. Kumar US, Tiwari AK, Reddy SV, et al. Free-radical-scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory constituents from Stereospermum personatum. J Nat Prod 2005;68(11):1615-1621. View Abstract
  12. Lenta BN, Weniger B, Antheaume C, et al. Anthraquinones from the stem bark of Stereospermum zenkeri with antimicrobial activity. Phytochemistry 2007;68(11):1595-1599.
  13. Ndjakou Lenta B, Vonthron-Senecheau C, Fongang Soh, R et al. In vitro antiprotozoal activities and cytotoxicity of some selected Cameroonian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111(1):8-12. View Abstract
  14. Onegi B, Kraft C, Kohler I, et al. Antiplasmodial activity of naphthoquinones and one anthraquinone from Stereospermum kunthianum. Phytochemistry 2002;60(1):39-44. View Abstract
  15. Van Vurren SF, Vijoen AM. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of toothbrush sticks used in Ethiopia. African Journal of Botany 2006;72:646-648.

The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.