Sodium bicarbonate

While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • The information in this bottom line is based on studies and reviews of sodium bicarbonate. There are different types of sodium available in the diet, medications, and other sources, but this bottom line focuses on sodium bicarbonate. It does not focus on sodium benzoate, sodium chloride, sodium phenylacetate, sodium ascorbate, sodium acetate, or other sodium salts. There may be uses, safety issues, side effects, and interactions linked to other forms of sodium that are not discussed in this bottom line. For more information, please view the Natural Standard bottom line on sodium chloride.

Background

  • Sodium bicarbonate is created from a reaction between sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. It easily dissolves in water, but not in alcohol, according to some sources.

  • Sodium bicarbonate is also called baking soda and has been used to treat ulcers and upset stomach. There is strong evidence supporting the use of sodium bicarbonate for preventing kidney disease or damage caused by contrast dye used during medical imaging. The use of sodium bicarbonate for relieving pain associated with the injection of anesthesia is also supported by strong scientific evidence. There is good evidence supporting the use of sodium bicarbonate for the removal of earwax. Sodium bicarbonate has also been used to remove dental plaque and treat conditions such as diarrhea, poisoning, and excess acid in body fluids. Strong evidence in support of other uses is lacking. There may be negative side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate when used to revive people from unconsciousness or to treat excess acid in the body fluids.

  • Overall, more research is needed on the safety of sodium bicarbonate.

Scientific Evidence

Uses

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Kidney disorders

Sodium bicarbonate has been used alone and in combination with other agents to help reduce damage or disease to the kidneys caused by the use of a contrast dye during medical imaging. Many studies found positive effects, including significant differences in the rate of kidney problems between people given sodium bicarbonate and those given other agents. There are a number of reviews on the effects of sodium bicarbonate on kidney injury caused by contrast dye.

Pain

Many studies and reviews have looked at the use of sodium bicarbonate as a buffer to prevent excess acid, and, when given with anesthesia, it consistently reduced pain associated with the treatment.

Ears (earwax removal)

The use of sodium bicarbonate drops has been shown to help remove earwax in many available studies. Benefits include increased removal of wax, reduced need for further removal, and satisfaction with treatment.

Exercise performance

Studies have found that sodium bicarbonate may have a small but positive effect on sprinting performance in men. Other benefits include improved overall exercise performance, time to exhaustion, total work, performance time, and power. More research is needed on the effects of sodium bicarbonate in women.

Acidosis

In general, studies looking at the effects of sodium bicarbonate on acidosis (excess acid in the body fluids) have found mixed or negative results. One review reported that solid evidence is lacking and that sodium bicarbonate may have negative effects on levels of fluid, sodium, and lactate, while other studies suggested that it may negatively affect some aspects of heart health. More research is needed, especially in the elderly, infants, and people who have certain types of acidosis.

Diarrhea

Sodium bicarbonate has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of diarrhea with loss of sodium bicarbonate in adults and children. Some studies report that sodium bicarbonate is as effective as sodium citrate for rehydration and treatment of acidosis caused by diarrheal dehydration.

Fluid in the lungs

A review reports that sodium bicarbonate is commonly used to treat fluid in the lungs. However, more research is needed in this area.

Infant development / neonatal care

Sodium bicarbonate may lack significant effects on survival rates before hospital discharge, nervous system disorders, brain disease or disorders, hemorrhage, or seizures in newborn babies. Information is limited, and more research is needed.

Metabolic abnormalities

In people who have cystinuria (stones in the bladder, kidney, or ureter), the acidity of urine may decrease similarly in those given sodium bicarbonate and those given potassium citrate. More research is needed.

Plaque

Some studies suggest that toothpaste that contains baking soda may remove plaque more effectively than toothpaste that does not contain baking soda in hard-to-reach places in the mouth. However, further research is needed.

Poisoning

A number of studies report mixed results when sodium bicarbonate is used to treat poisoning resulting from antidepressants, pesticides, and other agents. However, information is limited and of poor quality, and more research is needed.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.

  • Bladder disorders, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), chemical burns, chemotherapy side effects, disease diagnosis, eye problems, fertility, heartburn, high blood potassium level, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), itching, kidney disease (diagnosis), laxative, mouth and throat inflammation, muscle weakness, skin care, skin conditions, stomach disorders, stomach upset, ulcers, urination.

Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

  • According to some sources, the usual dose of sodium bicarbonate taken by mouth in adults is 325 milligrams to two grams four times daily. The maximum daily dose of sodium bicarbonate for people 60 years of age or older is eight grams daily, while the maximum daily dose is 16 grams daily for people aged 18-59 years.

  • To treat acidosis, 0.9 grams of sodium bicarbonate has been taken by mouth three times daily. A dose of 40 milliequivalents per liter of sodium bicarbonate has been given through an intravenous injection during dialysis together with one milliequivalent per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate taken by mouth. In some people, dosing may include a first dose of one milliequivalent per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate, followed by dosing as needed. A report states that a dose of 0.5-1 milliequivalents per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate taken by mouth daily to reach a level of 22-24 millimoles per liter of sodium bicarbonate in the blood is a common treatment for acidosis linked to chronic kidney disease. Sources report that the following doses may be taken by mouth: 20-36 milliequivalents daily in divided doses, providing a bicarbonate level of about 18-20 milliequivalents per liter. Higher doses may be needed to reduce symptoms and prevent or stabilize kidney failure in people who have acidosis caused by kidney failure. Depending on the type of kidney-related acidosis, a dose of 0.5-2 milliequivalents per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate may be taken by mouth daily in 4-5 divided doses, based on the person’s response and tolerance to this amount and until the acidosis has been controlled, or a dose of 48-72 milliequivalents (about 4-6 grams) may be taken by mouth daily. Additionally, doses of 4-10 milliequivalents per kilogram may be taken by mouth daily in divided doses. In people who have a type of acidosis that occurs as a complication if diabetes, sodium bicarbonate may be given through an intravenous injection if the blood pH falls below 7.2. A steady dose of 400 milliequivalents of sodium bicarbonate through an intravenous injection for 4-6 hours has been given for lactic acidosis (buildup of lactic acid). A dose of 2-5 milliequivalents per kilogram has been given through intravenous injection over 4-8 hours based on how severe the acidosis is. Some sources suggest that less than 33-50 percent of the bicarbonate needed should be given through intravenous injection immediately for people who need it urgently, while 2-5 milliequivalents per kilogram be given over 4-8 hours for less urgent cases, with additional doses given based on response and lab results.

  • To reduce the acid level of urine, a dose of 48 milliequivalents (or four grams) of sodium bicarbonate may be taken by mouth, followed by 12-24 milliequivalents (1-2 grams) every four hours or doses of 30-48 milliequivalents (2.5-4 grams) every four hours, up to 192 milliequivalents (16 grams) daily. These doses may be adjusted to maintain the desired pH level of urine.

  • To improve exercise performance, single doses of 3.6 millimoles per kilogram of body mass, a single dose of 2.4 millimoles per kilogram of body mass, or single doses of 2.9 or 4.8 millimoles per kilogram of body mass have been taken by mouth. Doses of sodium bicarbonate have ranged from 100 to 400 milligrams per kilogram taken by mouth as a single dose, as well as given through an intravenous injection either all at once or over three hours within three hours of starting exercise.

  • To remove plaque, 1.5 grams of toothpaste containing 20-65% baking soda for one minute on a standard toothbrush has been used while brushing the teeth.

  • To treat poisoning, sodium bicarbonate has been taken by mouth to reduce the acid level of urine in the following doses: after taking chlorpropamide, 41.5 ± 3.2 grams of sodium bicarbonate for 1-64 hours until a urine pH of 7.1-8.2 was achieved; three grams of sodium bicarbonate four times daily the day before and two days after taking 750 milligrams of diflunisal; one gram of sodium bicarbonate every four hours for one day before taking three milligrams of sodium fluoride; and 10 grams of sodium bicarbonate over 11 hours after taking sodium fluoride.

  • To treat an upset stomach, up to one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in a glass of water has been taken by mouth for up to two weeks.

  • During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), one milliequivalent per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate has been given through intravenous injection. For heart-related emergencies caused by drugs, 1-2 milliequivalents per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate has been given through multiple intravenous injections until a pH of 7.45-7.55 was reached and maintained. An infusion of 150 milliequivalents per liter of sodium bicarbonate, plus 30 milliequivalents per liter of potassium chloride in five percent dextrose, has been given through an injection. A dose of one milliliter per kilogram of 8.4 percent sodium bicarbonate has been given after blood gas analysis.

  • To prevent or treat kidney disorders, 80-212.9 milliequivalents per liter or 150-154 millimoles per liter of sodium bicarbonate solution has been given through an intravenous injection at a rate of 1-5 milliliters per kilogram hourly for 1-12 hours before a medical imaging procedure, and 1-3 milliliters per kilogram hourly for 1-12 hours afterward, or hourly throughout the procedure. Sodium bicarbonate solution has been given through an intravenous injection at a rate of 80 milliliters per kilogram hourly or 80 milliliters per hour for six hours. Sodium bicarbonate solution has been given through an intravenous injection along with 2,400 milligrams of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) taken by mouth, commonly as 600-1,200 milligrams twice daily, before, the day of, and/or after the procedure. Up to 2,400 milligrams of NAC has also been given through an intravenous injection along with sodium bicarbonate.

  • To treat bladder and kidney stones, a daily dose of 71.4 millimoles of sodium bicarbonate has been used to reduce acid in the urine.

  • To treat pain, 7.5-8.4 percent of sodium bicarbonate has been given through an intravenous injection before injection with anesthesia. A solution of 1.4 percent sodium bicarbonate or five milliliters of 8.4 percent sodium bicarbonate has also been given with anesthesia.

  • To treat poisoning from antidepressant use, the following doses have been given through an intravenous injection: 0.5-2.0 milliequivalents per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate; 100 millimoles, 150 millimoles, or 88 milliequivalents followed by 44 milliequivalents of sodium bicarbonate; 50 millimoles; or levels of sodium bicarbonate needed to reach a pH of 7.83 or to raise pH from 7.4 to 7.5 over a 24-hour period or from 7.36 to 7.52. The following doses have been given through an intravenous injection to increase the pH of urine: a single dose of 10-20 grams over three hours or 40-60 millimoles in five percent dextrose, 12 hours before giving methotrexate and continued for 48 hours after methotrexate treatment or after taking phenobarbital; a dose of 500 milliliters of a solution containing 1.25 percent sodium bicarbonate for one hour every four hours until urine pH exceeded 7.5; or a bolus dose of one millimole per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate through an intravenous injection 30 minutes after an infusion with five milligrams per kilogram of phenobarbital, followed by a one-liter infusion of five percent dextrose containing 100 millimoles of sodium bicarbonate at a rate of 2.5 milliliters per minute until urine pH was maintained at 7.5-8.0. After giving 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and mecoprop, 14 liters containing 69.3 grams of sodium bicarbonate has been given over a two-day period beginning 42-51 hours after ingestion of the toxin. A dose of five milliequivalents per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate has been given through an intravenous injection over one hour, followed by an infusion of 5-6 milliequivalents per kilogram over 23 hours, repeated daily until recovery or death.

  • To remove earwax, 4-5 drops of sodium bicarbonate solution have been placed in the ear one or two times daily for up to two weeks.

  • To clean the bowels, 1-2 moistened sodium bicarbonate suppositories have been placed inside the rectum, repeated as needed every 4-6 hours.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • The maximum daily dose of sodium bicarbonate for newborns and children under two years is nine milliequivalents per kilogram daily. A solution of 4.2 percent sodium bicarbonate (or 8.4 percent solution diluted to 0.5 milliequivalents per milliliter) given gradually is common. A solution of one milliequivalent per kilogram of an 8.4 percent sodium bicarbonate solution has been infused into the bone marrow.

  • To reduce acid content in the urine, 1-10 milliequivalents (or 84-840 milligrams) per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate has been taken by mouth daily and adjusted according to response.

  • To reduce acid levels in the body fluids, sodium bicarbonate has been given through an intravenous injection at a concentration of 5-15 millimoles per deciliter until the pH of the preterm infant’s arterial blood increased to 7.30 (an average dose of 3.6 millimoles per kilogram within the first 24 hours after birth, followed by observation until the end of the first week of life); 4.2 percent sodium bicarbonate has been given through an intravenous injection over 30 minutes; or a continuous infusion of sodium bicarbonate treated with heparin continuous has been given for 96 hours, beginning within 12 hours of birth. For infants and children younger than two years old, a slow infusion of a 4.2 percent sodium bicarbonate solution of up to eight milliequivalents per kilogram daily has been given through an intravenous injection, and for older children, a dose of 2-5 milliequivalents has been infused through intravenous injection over 4-8 hours, with further doses depending on response and laboratory results.

  • For cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in infants and children, one milliequivalent per kilogram of an 8.4 percent sodium bicarbonate solution has been given through intravenous injection, or for heart-related emergencies caused by drugs, a dose of 1-2 milliequivalents per kilogram has been given through an intravenous injection until the arterial pH was greater than 7.45, followed by 150 milliequivalents per liter in five percent dextrose, or for severe poisoning, a pH of 7.5-7.55, or for irregular heartbeat caused by cocaine poisoning, 1-2 milliequivalents per kilogram. According to guidelines, a dose of one milliequivalent per kilogram has been given through an intravenous injection or infused into the bone marrow slowly.

  • For infant development or newborn care, four milliliters per kilogram of sodium bicarbonate has been given through an intravenous injection for 3-5 minutes.

  • To treat poisoning in children, the following doses have been used to reduce acid levels in the urine: 75-165 milliliters per meter squared of fluid containing 2.5 grams per meter squared of sodium bicarbonate two hours before treatment with methotrexate, or fluid containing 5.4 grams per meter squared of sodium bicarbonate through an intravenous injection at a rate of 200 milliliters per meter squared per hour for one hour before methotrexate treatment.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid if allergic or sensitive to sodium bicarbonate. Information on the allergic effects of sodium bicarbonate is lacking.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Specific safety information on sodium is not discussed in this bottom line. For a more complete overview of sodium, information is available in the Natural Standard sodium chloride monograph.

  • Sodium bicarbonate is considered possibly safe when used with the advice and supervision of a health professional to treat disorders related to blood balance.

  • Use sodium bicarbonate at least two hours before or after other medications. Sodium bicarbonate may affect blood levels of medications or the way the kidneys absorb some medications.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or those taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people who have low or high blood pressure or those taking drugs or herbs and supplements that affect blood pressure.

  • Use cautiously in the treatment of excess acid in the body fluids of infants. Sodium bicarbonate may have negative side effects.

  • Use cautiously in the form of baking soda taken by mouth for upset stomach. Sodium poisoning may occur.

  • Use cautiously in newborns and in children younger than two years old. Quick injection of sodium bicarbonate solution (10 milliliters per minute) may cause high blood levels of sodium, lower pressure inside the skull, or bleeding inside the skull.

  • Use cautiously in people with congestive heart failure, kidney problems, or liver problems.

  • Use cautiously in people taking corticosteroids.

  • Use cautiously in combination with calcium supplements. Sodium bicarbonate may cause low blood levels of phosphorus or calcium deposits in the tissues.

  • Avoid in children who have diabetic ketoacidosis (fats broken down for fuel instead of sugar, which may lead to poisoning). Sodium bicarbonate may cause excess water buildup in the brain.

  • Avoid using at levels greater than eight milliequivalents per kilogram daily. Avoid using levels greater than eight grams daily in adults over 60 or 16 grams daily in other adults, or when an 8.4 percent solution is not diluted 50 percent in newborns or children under two years old.

  • Avoid using in people who have excess acid in the body fluids, high potassium levels, or a drug overdose (such as antidepressants or phenobarbitone).

  • Avoid using after prolonged heart failure until other therapies have failed (such as defibrillation or cardiac compression).

  • Avoid using without correcting electrolyte imbalance first or at the same time. This may help reduce the risk of low calcium and potassium levels.

  • Avoid using in people who have excess base in the body fluids, low calcium levels, or low chloride ion.

  • Avoid when using the Neutralizing Additive Solution 4.2 percent (LyphoMed) as a way to maintain a stable pH in the body.

  • Avoid using without frequent testing and monitoring of the person being given sodium bicarbonate. Avoid using when a bicarbonate deficiency is being treated in the first 24 hours of therapy. There may be delayed changes in blood electrolyte levels, which may cause excess base in the body fluids.

  • Avoid if allergic or sensitive to sodium bicarbonate. Information on the allergic effects of sodium bicarbonate is lacking.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may also cause abnormal heartbeat, bloating, changes in blood volume pumped by the heart, changes in potassium levels, changes in the blood or blood vessels, coma, dehydration, dizziness, ear inflammation, fluid in the lungs, gas, high carbon dioxide levels, increased muscle tension, loss of consciousness, low hydrogen ion levels, low phosphate levels, muscle twitching or weakness, nervous system problems, restlessness, shaking, shivering, shortness of breath, stomach cramps, stomach rupture, symptoms of excess base in the body fluids, upset stomach, and vomiting.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • For a more complete overview of sodium, information is available in the Natural Standard sodium chloride monograph.

  • Frequent use of sodium bicarbonate as an antacid may cause excess base and fluid overload in both mother and fetus.

  • Sodium bicarbonate has been used to treat low oxygen or excess acid in babies. It has been used to treat excess acid in mothers related to childbirth. It has been used to improve acid-base balance in healthy infants. However, sodium bicarbonate may cause negative side effects, bleeding in the brain, and brain injury in very-low-birthweight infants.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may improve electrolyte levels in the mucus from the cervix. This is thought to benefit conception.

  • Evidence suggests that sodium bicarbonate may be safe for women who are breastfeeding. Sodium bicarbonate may have little risk for the baby when used during breastfeeding.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • This section focuses on potential interactions with sodium bicarbonate. For more potential interactions based on sodium itself, information is available in the Natural Standard sodium chloride monograph.

  • Sodium bicarbonate has been shown to have benefits in reducing acid levels in urine. This may reduce the toxic effects of poisons.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).

  • Sodium bicarbonate may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people who are taking drugs that affect blood pressure.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may also interact with agents that may affect blood vessel width, agents that may enhance exercise performance, agents that may increase pH, agents that may reduce potassium levels, agents that may treat ear disorders, agents that may treat heart disorders, agents that may treat kidney disorders, amphetamines, antacids, antidiarrheals, antifungals, antiulcer and stomach acid-reducing agents, aspirin, atazanavir, cefpodoxime proxetil, chlorpropamide, corticosteroids, dasatinib, dental agents, ephedrine, flecainide, iron, lithium, mecamylamine, memantine, metformin, methenamine, pain relievers, pseudoephedrine, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), and Zegerid OTC®.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • This section focuses on potential interactions with sodium bicarbonate. For more potential interactions based on sodium itself, information is available in the Natural Standard sodium chloride monograph.

  • Sodium bicarbonate has been shown to have benefits in reducing acid levels in urine. This may reduce the toxic effects of poisons.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.

  • Sodium bicarbonate may also interact with antacids, antidiarrheals, antifungals, anti-inflammatories, antiulcer and stomach acid-reducing herbs and supplements, calcium, dental herbs and supplements, ephedrine, herbs and supplements that may affect blood vessel width, herbs and supplements that may enhance exercise performance, herbs and supplements that may increase pH, herbs and supplements that may lower potassium levels, herbs and supplements that may treat ear disorders, herbs and supplements that may treat heart disorders, herbs and supplements that may treat kidney disorders, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and pain relievers.

Author Information

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Briguori C, Visconti G, Ricciardelli B, et al. Renal insufficiency following contrast media administration trial II (REMEDIAL II): RenalGuard system in high-risk patients for contrast-induced acute kidney injury: rationale and design. EuroIntervention. 2011;6(9):1117-22, 7. View Abstract
  2. Carr AJ, Hopkins WG, and Gore CJ. Effects of acute alkalosis and acidosis on performance: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 10-1-2011;41(10):801-814. View Abstract
  3. Glisson JK, Vesa TS, and Bowling MR. Current management of salicylate-induced pulmonary edema. South.Med.J. 2011;104(3):225-232. View Abstract
  4. Joannidis M, Druml W, Forni LG, et al. Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit. Expert opinion of the Working Group for Nephrology, ESICM. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36(3):392-411. View Abstract
  5. Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, et al. Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 11-2-2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S876-S908. View Abstract
  6. Kunadian V, Zaman A, Spyridopoulos I, et al. Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of published clinical trials. Eur.J.Radiol. 2011;79(1):48-55. View Abstract
  7. Meier PP and Gurm HS. Is simpler also better? Brief sodium bicarbonate infusion to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. Am.J.Cardiol. 4-1-2010;105(7):1042-1043. View Abstract
  8. Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS, et al. Part 8: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 11-2-2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S729-S767. View Abstract
  9. Parekh R, Care DA, and Tainter CR. Rhabdomyolysis: advances in diagnosis and treatment. Emerg.Med.Pract. 2012;14(3):1-15. View Abstract
  10. Raghuveer TS and Cox AJ. Neonatal resuscitation: an update. Am.Fam.Physician 4-15-2011;83(8):911-918. View Abstract
  11. Silva RG, Silva NG, Lucchesi F, et al. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review. J.Bras.Nefrol. 2010;32(3):292-302. View Abstract
  12. Thomas R. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Bet 1. Rhabdomyolysis and the use of sodium bicarbonate and/or mannitol. Emerg.Med.J. 2010;27(4):305-308. View Abstract
  13. Thong S, Hooper W, Xu Y, et al. Enhancement of plaque removal by baking soda toothpastes from less accessible areas in the dentition. J.Clin.Dent. 2011;22(5):171-178. View Abstract
  14. Trivedi H, Nadella R, and Szabo A. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin.Nephrol. 2010;74(4):288-296. View Abstract
  15. Zaraca F, Wiedermann CJ, and Ebner H. Contrast media-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing angiography prior to or during vascular surgery: a systematic review. Minerva Chir 2011;66(6):553-560. View Abstract

The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.