Alternate Title

  • Sanicula europa

Related Terms

  • Acylated triterpenoid saponins, Apiaceae (family), caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, European sanicle, flavonoids, glucopyranosyl rosmarinic acid, neochlorogenic acid, oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, phenolic acids, phenols, poolroot, quercetin, rosmarinic acid, saccharose, sandrosaponin, Sanicula aqua, Sanicula elata, Sanicula elata Ham. var. chinensis Makino, Sanicula graveolens, Sanicula L., saniculae herba, saniculasaponins, saniculoids, saniculoideae (Apiaceae subfamily), saniculoside N, saponins, self-heal, triterpene saponin glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, Umbelliferae (family), wood sanicle.
  • Note: Sanicle has been called “self-heal,” which is the common name for Prunella vulgaris L., a member of the Lamiaceae family. Sanicle products have been reported to be contaminated with drooping bittercress (Cardamine enneaphyllos) and great masterwort (Astrantia major).

Background

  • Sanicle (Sanicula europaea, Sanicula europa) is a perennial plant in the Apiaceae family that is found in woodlands across Europe, Asia, and Africa. Sanicle products are generally made from the aerial plant parts.
  • Sanicle has been used for mild lung inflammation and congestion, cough, and bronchitis. Early study has investigated the potential antifungal, antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-HIV effects of sanicle. Sanicle has also been studied for its use in ear infections, atopic eczema, and asthma.

Evidence Table

    Disclaimer

    These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    Asthma

    Sanicle has been studied for use in asthma. More evidence is needed before a recommendation can be made.

    Ear infection (otitis media)

    Sanicle may help recurrent ear infections. More evidence is needed before a recommendation can be made.

    Skin problems (atopic eczema)

    Sanicle has been studied for use in atopic eczema. More studies are needed.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

    Disclaimer

    The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

Dosing

    Disclaimer

    The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

  • Adults (18 years and older)

    • Four to six grams of dried or aerial parts of sanicle has been taken by mouth.
  • Children (under 18 years old)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for sanicle, and use in children is not recommended.

Safety

    Disclaimer

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

  • Allergies

    • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to sanicle. Skin rash has been reported with sanicle.
  • Side Effects and Warnings

    • Use with caution in people taking blood-pressure lowering or diuretic drugs. Avoid in people with gastrointestinal problems due to risk of stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and irritation.
  • Array

  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    • Sanicle is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

    Disclaimer

    Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

  • Interactions with Drugs

    • Sanicle may have additive effects when taken with antifungal, antioxidant, antiretroviral, antiviral, diuretic, and blood pressure-lowering drugs. Sanicle may also add to the effects of drugs that thin mucus.
  • Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

    • Sanicle may have additive effects when taken with antifungal, antioxidant, antiviral, diuretic, and blood pressure-lowering herbs and supplements. Sanicle may also add to the effects of herbs or supplements that thin mucus.

Attribution

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

Bibliography

    Disclaimer

    Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

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    View Abstract
  • Calvino CI, Downie SR. Circumscription and phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae based on chloroplast DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;44(1):175-191.
    View Abstract
  • Calvino CI, Martinez SG, Downie SR. The evolutionary history of Eryngium (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): Rapid radiations, long distance dispersals, and hybridizations. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;46(3):1129-1150.
    View Abstract
  • Cheel J, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Jordan M, et al. Free radical scavenging activity and secondary metabolites from in vitro cultures of Sanicula graveolens. Z Naturforsch [C.] 2007;62(7-8):555-562.
    View Abstract
  • Engel S, Horn K. [Phytodermatosis by Dictamnus alba, Sanicula europaea and Phyllodendron consanguineum]. Dermatol Monatsschr. 1972;158(1):22-27.
    View Abstract
  • Hiller K. [On the contents of some saniculoids. 1. Sanicula europaea L.–isolation and quantitative understanding of chlorogenic and rosmarinus acid]. Pharmazie 1965;20(9):574-579.
    View Abstract
  • Karagoz A, Arda N, Goren N, et al. Antiviral activity of Sanicula europaea L. extracts on multiplication of human parainfluenza virus type 2. Phytother Res. 1999;13(5):436-438.
    View Abstract
  • Lamaison JL, Petitjean-Freytet C, Carnat A. [Rosmarinic acid, total hydroxycinnamic derivatives and antioxidant activity of Apiaceae, Borraginaceae and Lamiceae medicinals]. Ann Pharm Fr. 1990;48(2):103-108.
    View Abstract
  • Le Claire E, Schwaiger S, Banaigs B, et al. Distribution of a new rosmarinic acid derivative in Eryngium alpinum L. and other Apiaceae. J Agric Food Chem. 6-1-2005;53(11):4367-4372.
    View Abstract
  • Matsushita A, Miyase T, Noguchi H, et al. Oleanane saponins from Sanicula elata var. chinensis. J Nat Prod. 2004;67(3):377-383.
    View Abstract
  • Schopke T, Janka M, Nimtz M, et al. Saniculoside R-1: a new triterpenoid saponin from Sanicula europaea. Planta Med. 1998;64(1):83-85.
    View Abstract
  • Sevar R. Sanicula aqua: three clinical cases and a heuristic. Homeopathy. 2005;94(2):125-131.
    View Abstract
  • Turan K, Nagata K, Kuru A. Antiviral effect of Sanicula europaea L. leaves extract on influenza virus-infected cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 8-5-1996;225(1):22-26.
    View Abstract
  • Vargas P, Baldwin BG, Constance L. Nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence for a western North American origin of Hawaiian and South American species of Sanicula (Apiaceae). Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A 1-6-1998;95(1):235-240.
    View Abstract
  • Viturro C, Molina A, Schmeda-Hirschmann G. Free radical scavengers from Mutisia friesiana (Asteraceae) and Sanicula graveolens (Apiaceae). Phytother Res. 1999;13(5):422-424.
    View Abstract