Alternate Title

  • Opium poppy

Related Terms

  • Acetylcodeine, acetylmorphine, adormidera, aluminum, alpha-tocopherol, benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, breadseed poppy, brown mixture (BM), calcium, Californian poppy, campesterol, caproic acid, codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, copper, cyclolaudenol, delta-5-avenasterol, diglyceride, dormideira, elixir paregorico (Brazil), Ethiodol®, fatty acids, fiber, gamma-tocopherol, garden poppy, hanka, heroin, hexanal, hexanol, iodized poppy seed oil, iron, kompot, linoleic acid, Lipiodol®, magnesium, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, narcotine (noscapine), oleic acid, Oleum papaveris Seminis, opioid, opium, palmitic acid, Papaveraceae (family), Papaver somniferum, papaverine, pentanol, pentylfuran, phytic acid, Polish heroine, poppy head, poppy seed, poppy seed tea (PST), poppy straw, protein, reticuline, sanguinarine, sitosterol, sterols, stigmasterol, tetrahydropapaveroline, thebaine, triglycerides, white poppy seed, zinc.
  • Note
    : Although some reference to other parts of the Papaver somniferum plant is made in this monograph, the main focus is on the poppy seed. California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) and opium poppy are two very different species; the former is not covered in this monograph.

Background

  • The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is grown for opium, opiates, or poppy seeds, which are used in cooking and baking throughout the world. Morphine, a strong pain killer, is the major alkaloid of the opium poppy. Opium and the drugs derived from opium are addictive and may cause sedation or slowed breathing.
  • All parts of the poppy plant contain morphine and codeine; poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts and eating foods with poppy seeds may result in false positives for opiates in a drug test. Poppy seed cake, bagels, muffins, and rolls have not been shown to contain enough poppy seed to produce a false positive.
  • Poppy seed itself is not used for any medical condition. Poppy seeds and poppy seed oil have been used in diagnostic procedures and as a carrier and contrast medium.

Evidence Table

    Disclaimer

    These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    Chemotherapy adjuvant

    Iodized poppy seed oil (Lipiodol®) has been used to improve the detection of tumors with standard methods in patients with cancer of the liver. It has also been used as an adjunct to therapy. The effect of poppy seed oil alone is not clear from available studies. Additional studies are warranted before a conclusion can be made.

    Cognitive function

    Preliminary research suggests that Lipiodol® (iodized poppy seed oil) does not benefit cognitive or motor function in iodine-deficient children; however, urinary iodine levels improved. The effect of poppy seed oil alone cannot be determined from these studies. Additional research is warranted before a conclusion can be made.

    Diagnostic procedure

    Poppy seeds and poppy seed oil have been used in diagnostic procedures and as a contrast medium. More studies are needed in this area.

    Iodine deficiency

    Lipiodol® (iodized poppy seed oil) has been evaluated as a source of iodine in deficient individuals, particularly children. Positive results have been noted and maintained for at least one year. The effect of poppy seed oil alone has not been determined.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

    Disclaimer

    The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

Dosing

    Disclaimer

    The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

  • Adults (18 years and older)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for poppy seed or poppy seed oil.
    • Ethiodol® or Lipiodol® (iodized poppy seed oil or ethiodized oil; Savage Laboratories) is an FDA-approved injectable agent used for medical diagnostics.
  • Children (under 18 years old)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for poppy seed or poppy seed oil in children.

Safety

    Disclaimer

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

  • Allergies

    • Avoid in patients with known allergy or hypersensitivity to poppy seed, its constituents, or any member of the Papaveraceae family. Although rare, severe reactions to poppy have been reported. Redness of the skin (erythema), hives (angioedema), pink-eye (conjunctivitis), and difficulty breathing (dyspnea) have been reported following inhalation of poppy seed.
  • Side Effects and Warnings

    • Poppy may produce hallucinogenic and sedative properties. Vomiting, swelling of the mouth, blockage of the intestines, increased cell production (hyperplasia), hernia, mental fogginess, excessive sleepiness, and tolerance to pain have been reported following consumption of poppy seed.
    • Use cautiously in amounts higher than normally found in the diet. All parts of the poppy plant contain morphine and codeine; poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts and eating foods with poppy seeds may result in false positives for opiates in a drug test. Poppy seed cake, bagels, muffins, and rolls have not been shown to contain enough poppy seed to produce a false positive.
    • Use cautiously in patients taking central nervous system depressants, cholesterol-lowering drugs, pain relievers, drugs that suppress the immune system, and opiates.
    • Avoid in patients with an opioid addiction. Despite the relatively low levels of opium in the poppy seed, poppy seed tea has been suggested to cause dependence and addiction.
    • Avoid in patients with known allergy or hypersensitivity to poppy seed, its constituents, or any member of the Papaveraceae family.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    • Not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women in amounts higher than normally found in the diet due to a lack of available evidence.

Interactions

    Disclaimer

    Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

  • Interactions with Drugs

    • Poppy seed may interact with central nervous system depressants, pain relievers, anti-anxiety drugs, antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, drugs that suppress the immune system, and opiates.
  • Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

    • Poppy seed may interact with anti-anxiety herbs and supplements, antibacterials, anti-cancer herbs and supplements, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that suppress the immune system, opiates, pain relievers, and sedatives.

Attribution

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

Bibliography

    Disclaimer

    Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

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    View Abstract
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