Alternate Title

  • Pinus radiata

Related Terms

  • Astringenen, borovice montereyská (Czech), borovice paprsčitá (Czech), Cambria pine, catechin, Cedros Island pine, dihydroquercetin, Enzogenol®, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, esters, ferulic acid, flavonoid glycosides, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanones, glucopyranoside, glucopyranosiduronic acid, Guadalupe Island pine, hydroxybenzoic acid, insignis pine, insignisden (Afrikaans), MGX-008, Monterey pine, Monterey-Kiefer (German), montoree matsu (Japanese), myricetin, natural organic acids, pin de Monterey (French), pin remarquable (French), piñeiro de repoboación (Portuguese), pino de repoblación (Spanish), pino di Monterey (Italian), pino insigne (Italian), Pinus insignis, Pinus radiata, Pinus tuberculata, proanthocyandins, quercetin, radiata pine, sosna kalifornijska (Polish), sosna luchistaya (Russian), taxifolin, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, trans-caffeic acid, trans-ferulic acid, transgenic radiata pine, vanillic acid.
  • Selected combination products: In addition to Pinus radiata extract, products marketed as “Enzogenol®” may contain additional substances including, but not limited to, grapeseed extract (Vitis vinifera), rutin, or selenium.

Background

  • Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), is a tree native to coastal California and Mexico. Native American tribes of the West Coast of North America used Monterey pine to expel parasites, as an antiseptic, diuretic, and skin reddener, for water filtration, and to treat bladder problems, colds, coughs, influenza, kidney problems, migraine headache, joint and muscle problems, sores, and tuberculosis. Currently, Monterey pine is used around the world for timber.
  • High quality research supporting the use of Monterey pine for any medical condition is currently lacking. Enzogenol®, a commercially available dietary supplement that contains Monterey pine extract, has been shown in clinical trials to have antioxidant properties and to improve heart health and mental performance. While these findings are promising, additional research is needed.

Evidence Table

    Disclaimer

    These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    Antioxidant

    Antioxidant-rich plants such as Monterey pine may offer protection against degenerative diseases and aging. Early studies showed that a combination of Monterey pine and vitamin C decreased cell damage from oxidation. Additional research is needed.

    Cardiovascular health (heart and blood vessel health)

    Heart tissue can be damaged by oxidants. Antioxidant-rich plants such as Monterey pine may help protect the heart against the damaging effects of oxidants. Early human study showed that a dietary supplement containing Monterey pine extract and vitamin C was safe, well tolerated, and may have heart health benefits. However, other study produced conflicting results. Further research is required before a conclusion can be made.

    Mental performance

    Antioxidants, including those in Monterey Pine, may protect against age-related decline in mental abilities and improve mental performance. In early study, a preparation of Monterey pine and vitamin C improved mental function in older men more than vitamin C alone. Additional study is required.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

    Disclaimer

    The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

Dosing

    Disclaimer

    The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

  • Adults (18 years and older)

    • Monterey pine has been taken by mouth as an Enzogenol® capsule containing 120 milligrams of Monterey pine flavonoid extract and 60 milligrams of vitamin C.
    • As an antioxidant, 480 milligrams of Enzogenol® and 240 milligrams of vitamin C has been taken by mouth for 12 weeks.
    • For heart health, 480 milligrams of Enzogenol® and 60-240 milligrams of vitamin C has been taken by mouth daily for 12 weeks.
    • For mental performance, 960 milligrams of Enzogenol® and 120 milligrams of vitamin C has been taken by mouth daily for five weeks.
  • Children (under 18 years old)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose of Monterey pine in children.

Safety

    Disclaimer

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

  • Allergies

    • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Monterey pine, its components (such as pollen), airborne allergens, or members of the Pinaceae family.
  • Side Effects and Warnings

    • Side effects may include skin rash or seasonal allergic reactions such as runny nose and eye irritation.
    • Use cautiously in patients taking blood pressure lowering agents or those with blood pressure disorders, as Monterey pine may lower blood pressure.
    • Use cautiously in patients with high levels of fats or cholesterol in the blood, as Monterey pine may raise blood levels of fats and cholesterol.
    • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Monterey pine, its components (such as pollen), airborne allergens, or members of the Pinaceae family.
    • Avoid during pregnancy or breastfeeding, due to a lack of sufficient data.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    • Avoid in pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

    Disclaimer

    Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

  • Interactions with Drugs

    • Monterey pine may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using medications that affect blood pressure.
    • Montery pine may also interact with anti-inflammatory drugs, drugs that lower fats or cholesterol, and weight loss agents.
  • Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

    • Monterey pine may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.
    • Montery pine may also interact with anti-inflammatory herbs or supplements, antioxidants, herbs or supplements that lower fats or cholesterol, and weight loss herbs and supplements.

Attribution

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

Bibliography

    Disclaimer

    Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

  • Burry JN. Environmental dermatitis: contact dermatitis from Pinus radiata. Med J Aust 1977;2(1):13-14.
    View Abstract
  • Cornford CA, Fountain DW, Burr RG. IgE-binding proteins from pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) pollen: evidence for cross-reactivity with ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1990;93(1):41-46.
    View Abstract
  • Harris RM, German DF. The incidence of pine pollen reactivity in an allergic atopic population. Ann Allergy 1985;55(5):678-679.
    View Abstract
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 1999;19(18):8114-8121.
    View Abstract
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosc 1998;18(19):8047-8055.
    View Abstract
  • Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, et al. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156(6):637-642.
    View Abstract
  • Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A, et al. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 1996;312(7029):478-481.
    View Abstract
  • Loureiro G, Rabaca MA, Blanco B, et al. Aeroallergens sensitization in an allergic paediatric population of Cova da Beira, Portugal. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2005;33(4):192-198.
    View Abstract
  • Marcos C, Rodriguez FJ, Luna I, et al. I pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;87(1):39-42.
    View Abstract
  • Pipingas A, Silberstein RB, Vitetta L, et al. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation. Phytother Res 2008;22(9):1168-1174.
    View Abstract
  • Senthilmohan ST, Zhang Z, Stanley RA. Effects of flavonoid extract Enzogenol® with vitamin C on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 2003;23(9):1199-1210.
  • Shand B, Strey C, Scott R, et al. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytother Res 2003;17(5):490-494.
    View Abstract
  • Wood JE, Senthilmohal ST, Peskin AV. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 2002;77(2):155-161.
  • Youdim KA, Spencer JP, Schroeter H, et al. Dietary flavonoids as potential neuroprotectants. Biol Chem 2002;383(3-4):503-519.
    View Abstract
  • Young JM, Shand BI, McGregor PM, et al. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic Res 2006;40(1):85-94.
    View Abstract