Related Terms

Related Terms

  • Antibiotics, artificial saliva, bacteria, chewing gum, dental exam, dental floss, dentist, dry mouth, floss, flossing, fluoride toothpaste, mouth rinse, mouthwash, odor-causing bacteria, oral hygiene, scaling, root planning, toothbrush, toothpaste, xerostomia.

Author Information

This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

  1. American Dental Association (ADA). . Accessed April 1, 2009.
  2. Chitaishvili N, Mdzeluri T, Dzaqnidze G, et al. Unpleasant smell from a mouth–halitosis. Article in Russian. Georgian Med News. 2006 Dec;(141):26-9. View Abstract
  3. De Boever EH. Diagnosis and treatment of halitosis. Article in Dutch. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1995 May;102(5):174-7. View Abstract
  4. Donaldson AC, Riggio MP, Rolph HJ, et al. Clinical examination of subjects with halitosis. Oral Dis. 2007 Jan;13(1):63-70. View Abstract
  5. Lee SS, Zhang W, Li Y. Halitosis update: a review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007 Apr;35(4):258-60, 262, 264-8. View Abstract
  6. National Dental Association (NDA). . Accessed April 1, 2009.
  7. National Institutes of Health (NIH). . Accessed April 1, 2009.
  8. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2009. Accessed April 1, 2009.
  9. Oklahoma Dental Association. Patient’s page. Bad breath (halitosis) and your oral health– what you should know. J Okla Dent Assoc. 2007 Jun;98(9):7. View Abstract