Galphimia glauca

While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • 1,3,4,5-Tetragalloylquinic acid, 2,3-oxidosqualene, 3,4,5-trigalloylquinic acid, 6-acetoxygalphimine B, ellagic acid, ethylacetate fraction, flavonoid, flavonoid acylglycosides, free sterol, gallic acid, gallic acid derivatives, galloyl derivatives of quinic acid, Galphimia glauca C12, Galphimia glauca Cav. (Malpighiaceae), galphimidin, galphimine A, galphimine B (GB, a nor-seco-triterpene), galphimine E, galphimine J, galphimine-rich fraction, galphin A, galphin B, galphin C, GgHP, glaucacetalin A, glaucacetalin B, glaucacetalin C, gold shower, golden thryallis, glycosides, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, maslinic acid, methyl gallate, norfriedelanes, norsecofriedelanes, norsecotriterpene, polyphenolic compounds, quercetin, quercetin 3-O-(2″-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-(6″-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside, quinic acid, secofriedelanes, sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, stigmasterol, tetragalloylquinic acid, thryallis, Thryallis glauca, triterpene, triterpenoid, ursane saponins.

  • Select combination products: Allergy Relief Liquid (Ammi visnaga, Aralia racemosa, Cardiospermum halicacabbum, Galphimia glauca, Luffa operculata, Okobaka aubrevillei, Paloondo), Luffa comp.-Heel™ Nasal Spray, Zicam® Allergy Relief Nasal Pump (Galphimia glauca 12x, 30x, Luffa operculata 4x, 12x, 30x, Histanium hydrochloricum 12x, 30x, 200x, Sulfur 12x, 30x, 200x).

Background

  • Thryallis (Galphimia glauca), is a small evergreen shrub found in tropical regions of Mexico and Central America.

  • Traditional medicine practitioners in Latin America use Galphimia glauca for the treatment of asthma and allergies, while Mexican traditional medicine uses Galphimia glauca as a sedative in the treatment of mental disorders.

  • Thryallis is commonly used for the relief of allergy and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) symptoms such as runny nose, nasal congestion, and itchy, watery eyes. Galphimia glauca may be useful for the treatment of anxiety. However, more high-quality prolonged studies are needed.

Scientific Evidence

Uses

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Allergy/hay fever

Human studies have shown that Galphimia glauca may reduce eye and nose irritation associated with hay fever and pollen allergy. These benefits may be due to the placebo effect.

Anxiety

Limited research suggests that extracts of Galphimia glauca may reduce anxiety. More high-quality, prolonged studies with Galphimia glauca are needed.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.

  • Anticonvulsant (seizures), asthma, dysentery (intestinal disorder), fever, mental disorders, respiratory problems, snakebites, spasmolytic (muscle relaxant).

Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

  • Five drops of Galphimia glauca C2 have been given four times daily for four weeks to treat allergy symptoms in the eyes and nose.

  • To treat anxiety, 310 milligrams of Galphimia glauca have been given in capsule form.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for Galphimia glauca in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in people with a known allergy or sensitivity to Galphimia glauca, its parts, or members of the Malpighiaceae family.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Thryallis (Galphimia glauca) may be safe when used as a homeopathic remedy for up to four weeks to treat allergies.

  • Thryallis may cause burning and tearing in the eyes, dry mouth, fatigue, feelings of confusion, reduced concentration, and weakness.

  • Thryallis may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or those taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

  • Use cautiously in people who are susceptible to nosebleeds; are using depressants; have ear, nose, or throat sensitivity; or have mental disorders.

  • Avoid in people with known allergy or sensitivity to Galphimia glauca, its components, or members of the Malpighiaceae family.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is currently a lack of scientific evidence on the use of Galphimia glauca during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

  • Zicam® Allergy Relief Nasal Pump (a Galphimia glauca combination product) should not be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding without the approval of a doctor.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • Thryallis (Galphimia glauca) may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).

  • Thryallis may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.

  • Thryallis may also interact with anticancer drugs, antihistamines (drugs that may treat allergies), antiparasitic drugs, depressants, drugs that may affect blood pressure, and drugs that may treat anxiety.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Thryallis (Galphimia glauca) may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.

  • Thryallis may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements.

  • Thryallis may also interact with anticancer herbs and supplements, antiparasite herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that may affect blood pressure, herbs and supplements that may treat allergies, and stimulants.

Author Information

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Aguilar-Santamaria, L., Ramirez, G., Herrera-Arellano, A., Zamilpa, A., Jimenez, J. E., Alonso-Cortes, D., Cortes-Gutierrez, E. I., Ledesma, N., and Tortoriello, J. Toxicological and cytotoxic evaluation of standardized extracts of Galphimia glauca. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-3-2007;109(1):35-40. View Abstract
  2. Albano JP, Wilson PC, and Wilson SB. Effect of Neutralizing Irrigation Water Alkalinity with Acid on Nutritional Status and Growth of Thryallis (Galphimia glauca Cav.). HORTSCIENCE 2004;39(4):777.
  3. Bellavite, P., Ortolani, R., Pontarollo, F., Piasere, V., Benato, G., and Conforti, A. Immunology and homeopathy. 4. Clinical studies-part 2. Evid.Based Complement Alternat.Med 2006;3(4):397-409. View Abstract
  4. Campos, M. G., Toxqui, E., Tortoriello, J., Oropeza, M. V., Ponce, H., Vargas, M. H., and Montano, L. M. Galphimia glauca organic fraction antagonizes LTD(4)-induced contraction in guinea pig airways. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;74(1):7-15. View Abstract
  5. del Rayo, Camacho M., Phillipson, J. D., Croft, S. L., Marley, D., Kirby, G. C., and Warhurst, D. C. Assessment of the antiprotozoal activity of Galphimia glauca and the isolation of new nor-secofriedelanes and nor-friedelanes. J Nat Prod 2002;65(10):1457-1461. View Abstract
  6. Dorsch, W., Bittinger, M., Kaas, A., Muller, A., Kreher, B., and Wagner, H. Antiasthmatic effects of Galphimia glauca, gallic acid, and related compounds prevent allergen- and platelet-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction as well as bronchial hyperreactivity in guinea pigs. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1992;97(1):1-7. View Abstract
  7. Gawlik W, Wuthrich B, Hopff W, Wagner H, and Schmutzler W. Treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca. A double-blind study: Comments. Allergologie 1990;13(10):367-370.
  8. Herrera-Ruiz, M., Gonzalez-Cortazar, M., Jimenez-Ferrer, E., Zamilpa, A., Alvarez, L., Ramirez, G., and Tortoriello, J. Anxiolytic effect of natural galphimines from Galphimia glauca and their chemical derivatives. J Nat Prod 2006;69(1):59-61. View Abstract
  9. Herrera-Ruiz, M., Jimenez-Ferrer, J. E., De Lima, T. C., Aviles-Montes, D., Perez-Garcia, D., Gonzalez-Cortazar, M., and Tortoriello, J. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activity of a standardized extract from Galphimia glauca. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(1-2):23-28. View Abstract
  10. Mangas, S., Bonfill, M., Osuna, L., Moyano, E., Tortoriello, J., Cusido, R. M., Pinol, M. T., and Palazon, J. The effect of methyl jasmonate on triterpene and sterol metabolisms of Centella asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus and Galphimia glauca cultured plants. Phytochemistry 2006;67(18):2041-2049. View Abstract
  11. Muller A, Reiter S, Wirth C, and Wagner H. Anticomplementary flavonoids from Galphimia glauca. PHYTOMEDICINE 1998;5(5):341-345.
  12. Perusquia, M., Mendoza, S., Bye, R., Linares, E., and Mata, R. Vasoactive effects of aqueous extracts from five Mexican medicinal plants on isolated rat aorta. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;46(1):63-69. View Abstract
  13. Tortoriello, J., Ortega, A., Herrera-Ruiz, M., Trujillo, J., and Reyes-Vazquez, C. Galphimine-B modifies electrical activity of ventral tegmental area neurons in rats. Planta Med 1998;64(4):309-313. View Abstract
  14. Wiesenauer M and Lüdtke R. The treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca D4 – a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. PHYTOMEDICINE 1995;2(1):3-6.
  15. Dorsch, W. and Wagner, H. New antiasthmatic drugs from traditional medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl.Immunol. 1991;94(1-4):262-265. View Abstract

The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.