Alternate Title

  • Experiential therapy

Related Terms

  • Active listening, asking, attentional focus, attentional focus and symptom management intervention (AFSMI), body awareness, body experience and coordination, body-state focusing, Carl Rogers, clear space, clearing a space, client centered psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT), cognitive coping strategy, conscious space, coping, Eugene Gendlin, experiencing scale, experiential therapy, felt sense, focusing guide, focusing-oriented psychotherapy, focusing-oriented session report, focusing oriented recovery, focusing-oriented therapy, focusing process, focusing therapy, Grindler body attitudes scale, handle the feeling, high experiencing, in touch listening, interactive focusing therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), knowledge of performance (KP), knowledge of results (KR), low experiencing, post focusing checklist, post focusing questionnaire, psychomotor intervention, psychotherapy, receiving, relaxation response, resolving unfinished business, resonate, Rubenfeld synergy, self-regulation, therapist ratings of client focusing activity, TRCFA.

Background

  • Focusing (experiential therapy) is a method of psychotherapy that involves being aware of one’s feelings surrounding a particular issue and understanding the meaning behind words or images conveyed by those feelings. The focusing-oriented psychotherapist attributes a central importance to a person’s capacity to be aware of the meaning behind his/her words or images, the ability to sense feelings and meanings that are not yet formed. In every situation, humans experience an emotion or feeling. Proponents of focusing claim that the entire human body reacts to that emotion.
  • Focusing is similar to other mind/body approaches in that it provokes a relaxation response. It is different from other relaxation techniques in that the person hopes to gain access to the personal meanings they carry in the body, which are usually inaccessible to conscious awareness. Despite theories of how focusing may work, focusing oriented or experiential therapy is purported to work with a level of human process that is still not well understood by all.
  • For the past 40 years, focusing has been employed to enhance psychotherapeutic success. In the 1960s, Professor Eugene Gendlin and Carl Rogers researched why psychotherapy was helpful to some but not others by studying hundreds of hours of taped therapy sessions. Success in psychotherapy depended upon the way in which people attended to and verbalized their inner experience. The term ‘focusing’ was used to describe the method of emotional healing based on attending to and verbalizing an inner experience and body sensation.
  • Focusing is now practiced by thousands of people all over the world and has been integrated into many cognitive therapies. There are several studies investigating the practice of focusing among schizophrenics, domestic crime prison inmates, neurotics, cancer patients, those with pain and those with Epstein-Barr virus; however, more research is needed to make any firm recommendations. Focusing is being integrated into nursing, along with active learning, as one of two methods of holistic communication. Focusing can also be used to think creatively, explore what one really feels about something, and make decisions that ‘feel right’. Focusing can be done alone, with a guide, or with a therapist.

Evidence Table

    Disclaimer

    These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    Anxiety

    In situations that cause anxiety, focusing on body-state has been shown to reduce certain features of anxiety in healthy people. More research is needed to show that focusing may be used as an effective therapeutic treatment for clinical anxiety.

    Cancer

    Early evidence suggests focusing may improve the mood and body attitude in cancer patients. Firm recommendations cannot be made until well-designed clinical trials are available.

    Chronic pain

    Early evidence suggests focusing may improve medical symptoms and activity in individuals with chronic pain. More research is needed before a firm recommendation can be made.

    Epstein-Barr virus

    Early research showed that increased experiential involvement (an indication of focusing taking place) had no effect on antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus. More studies in the area of immune function and antibody production are required before a recommendation can be made in this area.

    HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy

    There is some evidence that certain forms of focusing can help HIV-positive patients to adhere to complicated antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, other forms of therapy may worsen compliance with ART. More research is needed to show what types of focusing may best assist HIV-positive patients in adhering to ART.

    Insomnia

    Behavioral intervention may improve sleep, especially in those who chronically use medication to treat insomnia. More research is needed to determine whether focusing can effectively treat insomnia, and whether it can ease withdrawal symptoms when chronic users stop medication.

    Postpartum depression

    There is some evidence that supports using problem-focused interpersonal psychotherapy as a treatment for women with depression after giving birth. Although more research is needed, the principles of focusing may be integrated easily into standard treatments.

    Reducing risk of falls in the elderly

    It has been suggested that psychomotor intervention may help reduce the risk of falling in elderly individuals. Focusing strategies have not yet been demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of falling in healthy, physically active older adults. More studies need to examine various focusing strategies in older adults with different levels of physical activity.

    Stroke recovery

    Focusing strategies may help restore motor function in patients recovering from stroke. However, scientific evidence is currently lacking. More research is needed to demonstrate if focusing can affect motor function. Further research may also determine which focusing strategies are most effective to use during stroke recovery.

    Well-being

    When recovering from surgery, breast cancer patients may benefit emotionally and physically from attentional focus. Although there is evidence that focusing may improve general well-being in breast cancer patients, further study is needed to design optimal treatments for different individuals.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

    Disclaimer

    The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

Safety

    Disclaimer

    Many complementary techniques are practiced by healthcare professionals with formal training, in accordance with the standards of national organizations. However, this is not universally the case, and adverse effects are possible. Due to limited research, in some cases only limited safety information is available.

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Attribution

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

Bibliography

    Disclaimer

    Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

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    View Abstract
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    View Abstract
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    View Abstract
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  • Nayowith, B. Focusing and Health: Some psychobiological perspectives. The folio: a journal for focusing and experiential therapy 1999; 18(1).
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  • Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Tavakoli A, et al. Social support, coping, and medication adherence among HIV-positive women with depression living in rural areas of the southeastern United States. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2007 Sep;21(9):667-80.
    View Abstract