- Cupressus arizonica
- Cupressaceae (family), Cupressoideae (subfamily), Cupressus, Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus funebris Endl (mourning cypress), Cupressus sempervirens, cypress (Cupressus species), hinokitiol, Italian cypress, phosphatidyl-choline, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, phospholipids.
Note: This monograph covers only the Cupressus species. The following are names for plant species that use the common name cypress but are not covered in this monograph: cypress (Chamaecyparis species), cypress (Callitropsis species), African cypress (Widdringtonia species), bald cypress (Taxodium species), Chinese swamp cypress (Glyptostrobus
pensilis), Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis), Fujian cypress (Fokienia hodginsii), Guaitecas cypress (Pilgerodendron uviferum), Patagonian cypress (Fitzroya cupressoides), Siberian cypress (Microbiota decussata), cypress-pines (Actinostrobus species), cypress-pines (Callitris species), Eastern red cedar, Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), Western red cedar (Thuja plicata).
- Note: This monograph does not include sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).
- The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that share the common name cypress. Cypresses are evergreen trees or large shrubs native to warm temperate habitats, and are found throughout the Mediterranean area. Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress) is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region.
- Cypress essential oil has been used as a fragrance and in aromatherapy. Cypress essential oil may have mood-elevating effects upon inhalation after physical work. Early evidence suggests that cypress may have antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant effects.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
*Key to grades:
The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Adults (18 years and older)
- There is no proven safe or effective dose for cypress in adults.
Children (under 18 years old)
- There is no proven safe or effective dose for cypress in children.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
- Avoid in individuals with known allergy/hypersensitivity to Cupressus species, their constituents, or members of the Cupressaceae family.
- Allergy to cypress has been noted, particularly in children with asthma and in individuals with allergic rhinitis.
Side Effects and Warnings
- Acute liver failure, conjunctivitis, kidney failure, respiratory symptoms, and blood disorders (autoimmune hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia) have been reported.
- Use cautiously in patients taking medications that increase the risk of bleeding (anticoagulants).
- Use cautiously in patients with respiratory disorders or in those taking drugs to treat asthma.
- Use cautiously in patients taking agents that affect the immune system.
- Use cautiously in patients with kidney disorders or in those taking other agents that are broken down by the kidneys.
- Use cautiously in patients with liver disorders.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
- Cypress is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Interactions with Drugs
- Cypress may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (“blood thinners”) such as warfarin (CoumadinÂ®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (PlavixÂ®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (MotrinÂ®, AdvilÂ®) or naproxen (NaprosynÂ®, AleveÂ®).
- Cypress may enhance the immune system. Use cautiously with agents that may stimulate or suppress the immune system.
- Cypress may interact with drugs used to treat asthma, antihistamines, or drugs that are eliminated by the kidneys.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
- Cypress may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto.
- Cypress may enhance the immune system. Use cautiously with herbs or supplements that may stimulate or suppress the immune system.
- Cypress may interact with herbs or supplements used to treat asthma, antihistamines, or herbs or supplements that are eliminated by the kidneys.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
- This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().
- Agea, E., Russano, A., Bistoni, O., et al. Human CD1-restricted T cell recognition of lipids from pollens. J.Exp.Med. 7-18-2005;202(2):295-308.
- Boutin-Forzano, S., Gouitaa, M., Hammou, Y., et al. Personal risk factors for cypress pollen allergy. Allergy 2005;60(4):533-535.
- Charpin, D, Calleja, M, Lahoz, C, et al. Allergy to cypress pollen. Allergy 2005;60(3):293-301.
- Dhivert-Donnadieu, H. [Allergy to cypress: clinical aspects]. Allerg.Immunol.(Paris) 2000;32(3):133-135.
- Gelardi, M., Maselli, Del Giudice, et al. Nasal resistance and allergic inflammation depend on allergen type. Int.Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2006;141(4):384-389.
- Geller-Bernstein, C., Waisel, Y., and Lahoz, C. Environment and sensitization to cypress in Israel. Allerg.Immunol.(Paris) 2000;32(3):92-93.
- Panzani, R. C. [History of allergy to cypress pollen]. Allerg.Immunol.(Paris) 2000;32(3):142-144.
- Papa, G, Romano, A, Quaratino, D, et al. Prevalence of sensitization to Cupressus sempervirens: a 4-year retrospective study. Sci Total Environ 4-10-2001;270(1-3):83-87.
- Suzuki, H., Ueda, T., Juranek, I., et al. Hinokitiol, a selective inhibitor of the platelet-type isozyme of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 9-7-2000;275(3):885-889.
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.