Alternate Title

  • Primula veris

Related Terms

  • Primula elatior, Primula elatior (L) Scherb., Primula officinalis Jacq., Primula veris, Primulaceae (family).
  • Note: Cowslip (Primula veris) should not be confused with Caltha palustris, which is also commonly called cowslip.

Background

    Evidence Table

      Disclaimer

      These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    *Key to grades:

    Tradition

      Disclaimer

      The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

    Dosing

      Disclaimer

      The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

    • Adults (18 years and older)

      • There is no proven safe or effective dose for cowslip in adults.
    • Children (younger than 18 years)

      • There is no proven safe or effective dose for cowslip in children.

    Safety

      Disclaimer

      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

    • Allergies

      • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to cowslip (Primula veris) or its constituents.
    • Side Effects and Warnings

      • There is insufficient evidence in humans to support the use of cowslip for any indication. Hemolytic activity (destruction of red blood cells) by cowslip has been reported. Use cautiously in patients with hematologic (blood) disorders.
    • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

      • Cowslip is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of sufficient available evidence.

    Interactions

      Disclaimer

      Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

    • Interactions with Drugs

      • Although not well studied in humans, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Primula elatior and Primula veris may have dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects. Caution is advised when taking cowslip with other anticonvulsant agents.
      • Cowslip may have anti-inflammatory effects. Caution is advised when taking cowslip with other anti-inflammatory agents.
      • Cardiodoron (Primula officinalis blossom extract, Onopordon acanthium blossom extract, and Hyoscyamus niger herb extract) may affect heart rate. Use cowslip cautiously with cardiac (heart) agents.
      • Hemolytic activity (destruction of red blood cells) by cowslip has been reported. Patients with bleeding disorders or those taking agents to alter the blood (hematological agents) should use cowslip with caution.
    • Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

      • Although not well studied in humans, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Primula elatior and Primula veris may have dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects. Caution is advised when taking cowslip with other anticonvulsant herbs or supplements.
      • Cowslip may have anti-inflammatory effects. Caution is advised when taking cowslip with herbs or supplements with anti-inflammatory effects.
      • Cardiodoron (Primula officinalis blossom extract, Onopordon acanthium blossom extract, and Hyoscyamus niger herb extract) may affect heart rate. Use cowslip cautiously with herbs or supplements that have potential cardiac (heart) effects.
      • Hemolytic activity (destruction of red blood cells) by cowslip has been reported. Patients with bleeding disorders or those taking herbs or supplements that may alter the blood (hematological agents) should use cowslip with caution.

    Attribution

    • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

    Bibliography

      Disclaimer

      Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

    • No Author. [Fluctuation of the Saponin Content and the Hemolytic Activity of Saponaria Officinalis L. Priumula Officinalis (L.) Hill., Polemonium Coeruleum L., and Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.]. Pharmazie 1964;19:538-540.
      View Abstract
    • Anour R, Leinker S, van den Hoven R. Improvement of the lung function of horses with heaves by treatment with a botanical preparation for 14 days. Vet.Rec. 12-3-2005;157(23):733-736.
      View Abstract
    • Budzianowski J, Morozowska M, Wesolowska M. Lipophilic flavones of Primula veris L. from field cultivation and in vitro cultures. Phytochemistry 2005;66(9):1033-1039.
      View Abstract
    • Cysarz D, Schurholz T, Bettermann H, et al. Evaluation of modulations in heart rate variability caused by a composition of herbal extracts. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50(5):420-424.
      View Abstract
    • Huck CW, Huber CG, Ongania KH, et al. Isolation and characterization of methoxylated flavones in the flowers of Primula veris by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2-18-2000;870(1-2):453-462.
      View Abstract
    • Jager AK, Gauguin B, Adsersen A, et al. Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat epilepsy and convulsions. J Ethnopharmacol 4-21-2006;105(1-2):294-300.
      View Abstract
    • Muller A, Ganzera M, Stuppner H. Analysis of phenolic glycosides and saponins in Primula elatior and Primula veris (primula root) by liquid chromatography, evaporative light scattering detection and mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 4-21-2006;1112(1-2):218-223.
      View Abstract
    • Paris R. [On the flavonoids of native species of Primula. Presence of a heteroside of kaempferol in the flowers of Primula officinalis Jacq.]. Ann.Pharm Fr. 1959;17:331-335.
      View Abstract
    • Sufka KJ, Roach JT, Chambliss WG Jr, et al. Anxiolytic properties of botanical extracts in the chick social separation-stress procedure. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1-1-2001;153(2):219-224.
      View Abstract
    • Van Rossum F, Triest L. Fine-Scale Spatial Genetic Structure of the Distylous Primula veris in Fragmented Habitats. Plant Biol (Stuttg) 11-13-2006.
      View Abstract
    • Vitas M, Smith KE, Plavec J, et al. Induction of steroidal hydroxylase activity by plant defence compounds in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. Chemosphere 1999;38(4):853-863.
      View Abstract
    • Webster MA, Gilmartin PA. A comparison of early floral ontogeny in wild-type and floral homeotic mutant phenotypes of Primula. Planta 2003;216(6):903-917.
      View Abstract