Related Terms

  • Alcoholism, ankylosing spondylitis, anorexia nervosa, anticonvulsant-induced osteomalacia, BMD, bone mineral density, bulimia, cartilage, corticosteroid, Crohn’s disease, Cushing’s disease, cystic fibrosis, dal photon absorptiometry, DEXA, diuretics, DPA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, eating disorders, estrogen, fracture, gastrectomy, hepatic osteodystrophy, hormonal replacement therapy, HRT, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hysterectomy, I.U., International unit, juvenile osteoporosis, Kashin-Beck disease, kyphoplasty, kyphosis, menopause, oophrectomy, osteochondrosis, osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteopenic, osteoporotic, parathyroidectomy, P-DEXA, peak bone loss, peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, postmenopausal, progestin, QCT, quantitative computer tomography, renal osteodystrophy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, SERMS, skeletal fluorosis, single-energy X-ray absorptiometry, smoking, smoking cessation, SXA, testosterone, ultrasound, vertebroplasty.

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This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

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  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. . Accessed April 28, 2009.
  3. International Osteoporosis Foundation. . Accessed April 28, 2009.
  4. Lata PF, Elliott ME. Patient assessment in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22(3):261-75. View Abstract
  5. Middleton ET, Steel SA. The effects of short-term hormone replacement therapy on long-term bone mineral density. Climacteric. 2007;10(3):257-63. View Abstract
  6. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). . Accessed April 28, 2009.
  7. National Osteoporosis Foundation. . Accessed April 28, 2009.
  8. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2009. Accessed April 28, 2009.
  9. Shen M, Kim Y. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a review of current surgical management techniques. Am J Orthop. 2007;36(5):241-8. View Abstract
  10. Straub DA. Calcium supplementation in clinical practice: a review of forms, doses, and indications. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;22(3):286-96. View Abstract
  11. Swanenburg J, de Bruin ED, Stauffacher M, et al. Effects of exercise and nutrition on postural balance and risk of falling in elderly people with decreased bone mineral density: randomized controlled trial pilot study. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(6):523-34. View Abstract