Related Terms

  • Abortive, anticonvulsant, antiviral, arrhythmia, arteriovenous malformations, artery, aura, basilar, artery, beta-blocker, caffeine, calcium channel blocker, carotid, carotidynia, cerebrovascular, cluster headache, computer tomography, constriction, cranial, CT, dilation, EEG, electroencephalography, epidural hematoma, ergot, estrogen, headache, heredity, herpes simplex encephalitis, hormone, intracerebral, magnetic resonance imaging, menopause, MRI, neuropeptides, nociceptors, norepinephrine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, opiate, pallor, parasthesia, photophobia, PMS, postdrone, premenstrual syndrome, preventative, primary headache, prodrome, progesterone, prophylactic, ptosis, rebound headache, scintillating scotomas, secondary headache, serotonin, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhages, subdural hematoma, tension headache, TIA, transient ischemic attack, trauma, tricyclic antidepressant, triptan, vertigo.

Author Information

This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  • American Academy of Family Physicians. .
  • Blanchard EB, Appelbaum KA, Radnitz CL, et al. Placebo-controlled evaluation of abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation and of relaxation combined with cognitive therapy in the treatment of tension headache. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1990;58(2):210-5. . View Abstract
  • Estevez M, Gardner KL. Update on the genetics of migraine. Hum Genet. 2004;114(3):225-35. . View Abstract
  • Hershey AD, Tang Y, Powers SW, et al. Genomic abnormalities in patients with migraine and chronic migraine: preliminary blood gene expression suggests platelet abnormalities. Headache. 2004;44(10):994-1004. . View Abstract
  • Lang E, Kastner S, Neundorfer B, et al. Effects of recommendations and patient seminars on effectivity of outpatient treatment for headache. Schmerz. 2001;15(4):229-40. . View Abstract
  • Miller VA, Palermo TM, Powers SW, et al. Migraine headaches and sleep disturbances in children. Headache. 2003;43(4):362-8. .View Abstract
  • National Institutes of Health. .
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. .
  • The National Headache Foundation. .
  • The National Migraine Association. .
  • Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2010.
  • National Women’s Health Information Center. .