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  • Alzheimer’s disease, amenorrhea, anti-androgen, anti-estrogen, atrophic vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, breast cancer-related hot flashes, calcium, Candida, cervicitis, cervix, chronic pelvic pain, climacteric syndrome, contraceptive, corpus luteum deficiency, cramps, cytokines, dysmenorrheal, ectopic pregnancy, emmenagogue, endometriosis, estrogen, fibrocystic breast disease, follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH, GABA, gardnerella, gonorrhea, gynecologist, hirsutism, hormonal disorders, hormone replacement therapy, hormone-related vaginitis, hot flashes, HRT, hypermenorrhea, hypothalamus, hypothyroidism, hysterectomy, incontinence, interleukins, irritant vaginitis, leukorrhea, LH, luteal phase deficiency, luteinizing hormone, menopausal disorders, menopausal hot flashes, menopausal symptoms, menopause, menorrhagia, menstrual, menstrual pain, menstruation, neurochemicals, oophrectomy, osteoporosis, ovaries, ovariotomy, ovulation, peri-menopause, pituitary gland, postmenopause, postmenopausal vaginal dryness, progesterone, progestin, serotonin, uterine fibroids, uterus, vaginal dryness, vaginal inflammation, vaginal yeast infection, vaginitis, vitamin D, xenoestrogens, yeast infection, yeast vaginitis.

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This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

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  2. Bruno D, Feeney KJ. Management of postmenopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors. Semin Oncol. 2006;33(6):696-707. View Abstract
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. . Accessed April 15, 2009.
  4. Douglas S. Premenstrual syndrome. Evidence-based treatment in family practice. Can Fam Physician. 2002 Nov;48:1789-97. View Abstract
  5. Harman SM. Estrogen replacement in menopausal women: recent and current prospective studies, the WHI and the KEEPS. Gend Med. 2006;3(4):254-69. View Abstract
  6. Lata PF, Elliott ME. Patient assessment in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22(3):261-75. View Abstract
  7. Middleton ET, Steel SA. The effects of short-term hormone replacement therapy on long-term bone mineral density. Climacteric. 2007;10(3):257-63. View Abstract
  8. National Women’s Health Center. . Accessed April 15, 2009.
  9. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2009. Accessed April 15, 2009.
  10. North American Menopause Society. . Accessed April 15, 2009.
  11. Rosano GM, Vitale C, Marazzi G, et al. Menopause and cardiovascular disease: the evidence. Climacteric. 2007;10 Suppl 1:19-24. View Abstract
  12. Women’s Health America. . Accessed April 15, 2009.