Related Terms

Related Terms

  • Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, arthritis, arthroscopy, Becker’s muscular dystrophy, computed tomography, connective tissue, convulsions, crepitus, CT, depression, dermatomyositis, DEXA, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Dupuytren’s contracture, electromyography, epicondylitis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR, fibromyalgia, fibromyositis, fibrositis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD, IBS, involuntary muscle, irritable bowel syndrome, joint noises, joint stiffness, magnetic resonance imaging, MD, MRI, muscle atrophy, muscular dystrophy, myalgia, myofascial pain, myofascial release, osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, PMS, polymyositis, premenstrual syndrome, proximal myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal muscular atrophy, synovial fluid, temporomandibular joint disorder, tendonitis, tenosynovitis, TMJ, voluntary muscle.

Author Information

This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. . Accessed April 12, 2009.
  2. Barr KP. Review of upper and lower extremity musculoskeletal pain problems. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2007;18(4):747-60. View Abstract
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  4. Clark KL. Nutritional considerations in joint health. Clin Sports Med. 2007;26(1):101-18. View Abstract
  5. Littlejohn G. Regional pain syndrome: clinical characteristics, mechanisms and management. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007;3(9):504-11. View Abstract
  6. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). . Accessed April 12, 2009.
  7. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2009. Accessed April 12, 2009.
  8. Paulson MR, Dekker AH, Aguilar-Gaxiola S. Eliminating disparities in pain management. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007;107(9 Suppl 5):ES17-20. View Abstract