Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Related Terms

  • Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AAt), Arterial blood gases (ABGs), bronchial tubes, bronchitis, bronchodilators, chronic bronchitis, corticosteroids, cutis laxa, dyspnea, emphysema, inhaled steroids, leukotriene modifiers, lung disease, lung transplant, Marfan syndrome, plethysmograph, pulmonary disease, pulmonary function tests, pulse oximetry, PFTs, respiratory failure, shortness of breath (SOB), smoking cessation, spirometry test, sputum examination, supplemental oxygen.

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This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

  1. American Lung Association. .
  2. Bateman ED, Feldman C, O’Brien J, et al. Guideline for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): 2004 revision. S Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;94(7 Pt 2):559-75. . View Abstract
  3. Cazzola M, Donner CF, Hanania NA. One hundred years of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respir Med. 2007 Jun;101(6):1049-1065. Epub 2007 Mar 23. . View Abstract
  4. Centers for Disease Control. .
  5. Holzgrabe U, Muth M. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.] [Article in German.] Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2007 May;30(5):168-76; quiz 177-8. . View Abstract
  6. La Vecchia C, Fabbri LM. Prevention of death in COPD. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 24;356(21):2211-2; author reply 2213-4. . View Abstract
  7. National Emphysema Foundation. .
  8. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2010.
  9. Omron E. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in COPD. Chest. 2007 Mar;131(3):939; author reply 940. . View Abstract
  10. Yohannes AM, Hardy CC. Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in older patients: a practical guide. Drugs Aging. 2003;20(3):209-28. . View Abstract