Breast Cancer

Related Terms

  • Axillary, chemobrain, computer-aided detection, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), ductal lavage, estrogen, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic, fine needle aspiration, HER-2/neu, infiltrating ductal, infiltrating lobular cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, invasive ductal, lumpectomy, lymph node, magnetic resonance imaging, mammography, mastitis, medullary carcinoma, metastatic, microcalcification, molecular breast imaging, mucinous carcinoma, peau d’ orange, tubular carcinoma, ultrasonography.

Author Information

This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

  1. American Cancer Society. . Accessed March 5, 2009.
  2. Cade JE, Burley VJ, Greenwood DC. Dietary fibre and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007. View Abstract
  3. Cho E, Chen WY, Hunter DJ, et al. Red meat intake and risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(20):2253-9. View Abstract
  4. Deligeoroglou E, Michailidis E, Creatsas G. Oral contraceptives and reproductive system cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;997:199-208. View Abstract
  5. Forman MR. Changes in Dietary Fat and Fiber and Serum Hormone Concentrations: Nutritional Strategies for Breast Cancer Prevention over the Life Course. J Nutr. 2007;137(1):170S-4S. View Abstract
  6. Lahmann PH, Friedenreich C, Schuit AJ, et al. Physical activity and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jan;16(1):36-42. View Abstract
  7. Mefferd K, Nichols JF, Pakiz B, et al. A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Oct 21. View Abstract
  8. Mellemkjaer L, Bigaard J, Tjonneland A, et al. Body composition and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a Danish prospective cohort study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14(10):1854-62. View Abstract
  9. National Cancer Institute (NCI). . Accessed March 5, 2009.
  10. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. Copyright © 2009. . Accessed March 5, 2009.
  11. Rebbeck TR, Troxel AB, Norman S, et al. A retrospective case-control study of the use of hormone-related supplements and association with breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007;120(7):1523-8. View Abstract
  12. Susan G. Komen Foundation. . Accessed March 5, 2009.
  13. Zhang SM, Lee IM, Manson JE, et al. Alcohol Consumption and Breast Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007. View Abstract