Back Pain

Related Terms

  • Acute, ankylosing spondylitis, atrophy, cerebrospinal fluid, cervical disc disease, cervical disc herniation, chronic, computerized tomography, contrast dye, CT, discitits, disectomy, electromyogram, EMG, fusion, herniated disc, herniation, IDET, intervertebral disc, intradiscal electrothermal therapy, joints, lamina, laminectomy, laminotomy, ligaments, magnetic resonance imaging, meninges, MRI, muscle, myelography, myofacial, nervous tissue, osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, peripheral, radioactive tracer, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, scoliosis, shoulder pain, slipped disc, spinal column, spinal stenosis, spinal tap, spine problems, spondylolisthesis, spine, sprains, tendons, tissues, vertebrae, vertebral, whiplash.

Author Information

This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

  1. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. .
  2. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. .
  3. American Chiropractic Association. .
  4. Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, et al. Relationship between body weight gain and significant knee, hip, and back pain in older Americans. Obes Res. 2003;11(10):1159-62. View Abstract
  5. IJzelenberg H, Meerding WJ, Burdorf A. Effectiveness of a back pain prevention program: a cluster randomized controlled trial in an occupational setting. Spine. 2007;32(7):711-9. View Abstract
  6. Irwin RW, Watson T, Minick RP, et al. Age, body mass index, and gender differences in sacroiliac joint pathology. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;86(1):37-44. View Abstract
  7. Kwon MA, Shim WS, Kim MH, et al. A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 772 patients who had undergone general physical examination. J Korean Med Sci. 2006;21(6):1086-91. View Abstract
  8. The Movement Disorder Society. .
  9. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. .
  10. National Pain Foundation. .
  11. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2009.
  12. Porter SE, Hanley EN Jr. The musculoskeletal effects of smoking. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2001;9(1):9-17. View Abstract