Related Terms

  • Arthrocentesis, arthroscope, arthroscopic debridement, arthroscopic lavage, autoimmune, autoimmune disease, autoimmune disorder, autoimmunity, cartilage, corticosteroid, degenerative joint disease, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DMARDs, frozen shoulder, joint disease, immune system, immunosuppressants, inflammation, joint, joint disease, joint inflammation, joint replacement, nodules, osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, periarthritis, rheumatoid, rheumatoid arthritis.

Author Information

This information has been edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.


Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to Selected references are listed below.

  1. American Arthritis Society. . Accessed May 20, 2009.
  2. Arthritis Foundation Homepage. . Accessed May 20, 2009.
  3. Bijlsma JW, Knahr K. Strategies for the prevention and management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Feb;21(1):59-76. . View Abstract
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. . Accessed May 20, 2009.
  5. Combe B. Early rheumatoid arthritis: strategies for prevention and management. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Feb;21(1):27-42. . View Abstract
  6. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS). . Accessed May 20, 2009.
  7. Natural Standard: The Authority on Integrative Medicine. . Copyright © 2009. Accessed May 20, 2009.
  8. Penninx BW, Messier SP, Rejeski WJ, et al. Physical exercise and the prevention of disability in activities of daily living in older persons with osteoarthritis. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Oct 22;161(19):2309-16. . View Abstract
  9. Rousseau JC, Delmas PD. Biological markers in osteoarthritis. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2007 Jun;3(6):346-56. . View Abstract
  10. Sohen S. [Adverse effects of corticosteroids in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.] [Article in Japanese.] Nippon Rinsho. 2005 Jan;63 Suppl 1:556-9. . View Abstract