Mist bredina (Bridelia spp.)

While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.

Related Terms

  • Adamarudu (Tamil), aga (Nigeria), akamati (Togo), asana (Marathi, Kannada, Sanskrit), asaragba (Nigeria), baboni (Guinea), babooni (Burkina Faso, Mali), babuni saba (Burkina Faso), badia, bahukandaki (Sanskrit), barié (Ivory Coast), bemebenku (West Africa), Bridelia
    atroviridis, Bridelia cathartica, Bridelia crenulata, Bridelia ferruginea, Bridelia glauca, Bridelia grandis, Bridelia micrantha, Bridelia ndellensis, Bridelia retusa Spreng., Bridelia scandens, Bridelia scleroneura, burburumhi (Nigeria), cellepuri (Burkina Faso), choluhae (Togo), dafi (West Africa), da-fing saba (Guinea), doho (Ghana), dorowan birni (Nigeria), ekavira (Sanskrit), Euphorbiaceae, féféhi (Ivory Coast), gayo, g’bété (Burkina Faso), geio (Bengali), gli (Ivory Coast), gojji (Kannada), gôn (Ivory Coast), gudi, gulumbi (Nigeria), gulummehi (Nigeria), hedionbiga (Niger), hionmonli (Togo), hira (West Africa), honsuk-okué (West Africa), ìrà (Nigeria), ìràodàn (Nigeria), irigo (Ivory Coast), kaddafi (Nigeria), kaduga (Tamil), kaini (Malayalam), kaj, kaja, kaji (Hindi), kajja, kandakasana (Sanskrit), kasi, kassi (Hindi), kensange abia (Nigeria), khaja (Hindi), kirni (West Africa), kismi (Nigeria), kisni (West Africa), kizni (Nigeria), kojuteki (Burkina Faso), kolo (Togo), komanji (Kannada), kora maddi (Telugu), koyamarwa (Kannada), kpépéla (West Africa), kpine (Nigeria), kui (Sierra Leone), kurni (Nigeria), lammulam-muki (Nigeria), marehi (Nigeria), mist bredina, mukkaini (Malayalam), mulkaini (Malayalam), mullankaini (Malayalam), mulluhonne (Kannada), mulluvenga (Malayalam), mullu-vengai (Tamil), nakru (Ivory Coast), nakurugo (Ivory Coast), nasinage (Kannada), olá (Nigeria), pekpéla (West Africa), Phyllanthaceae, Phyllanthoideae, rang thon (Thailand), saba (West Africa), sabua (Mali), saga (West Africa), sagba (West Africa), sagha (Burkina Faso), sagua (West Africa), sagua lé (West Africa), sagué (West Africa), saguin (Mali), sea (West Africa), seikchi, senseyohi (Burkina Faso), spinous kino tree, teng nam, tiakoroko (Ivory Coast), tiblen felé (Burkina Faso), tukwé (Ivory Coast), uomo (West Africa), wallinjang (Ghana), warrinjung (Ghana), yumpo (Togo), zendi (Nigeria).

Background

  • Members of the genus Bridelia are found throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially in Africa and Asia. Of the 60-70 members of this genus, the most commonly studied species are Bridelia ferruginea and Bridelia retusa.

  • Traditionally, several Bridelia species are used to treat a variety of conditions, including dysentery, hemorrhoids, hemorrhage, heavy menstrual bleeding, leukorrhea, arthritis, diabetes, wounds, ulcers, poisoning, abdominal pain, and cardiovascular and gynecological conditions, and as a contraceptive. At this time, there is a lack of high-quality human trials in support of the use of Bridelia species for any indication.

Scientific Evidence

Uses

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.

*Key to grades:

Tradition

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.

  • Abdominal pain, amoeba infections, anemia, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthic (anthelmintic), antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, arthritis, astringent, blood clot prevention, contraceptive, dental caries, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, gynecological disorders, heart conditions, hemiplegia (paralysis on left or right half of body), hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, high blood pressure, hypoglycemic agent (lowers blood sugar), lower back pain, malaria, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), pain relief, pain suppressant, poisoning, rheumatism, sickle cell anemia, snakebite, ulcer, urinary complaints, vaginal discharge, wounds.

Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for Bridelia retusa in adults.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective dose for Bridelia retusa in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Bridelia species, their constituents, or members of the Euphorbiaceae or Phyllanthaceae families, such as cassava (Manihot esculenta), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas), the Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), and Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum).

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Bridelia species have traditionally been used for their antidiabetic effects, and they may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.

  • Bridelia species may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or those taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

  • Bridelia species may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure.

  • Use cautiously in people with gastrointestinal disorders or those taking antidiarrheal agents.

  • Use cautiously in people with heart rhythm disorders or in those taking heart rate-regulating agents.

  • Use cautiously in people with hormonal disorders or in those taking estrogen-containing medications.

  • Use cautiously in people with immune disorders or in those taking immunomodulatory agents.

  • Avoid in people with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Bridelia species, their constituents, or members of the Euphorbiaceae or Phyllanthaceae families, such as cassava (Manihot esculenta), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas), the Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), and Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum).

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is a lack of high quality human data on the use of Bridelia in pregnant or lactating women. In animals, Bridelia atroviridis has been shown to have effects on the uterus.

Interactions

Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs

  • Bridelia species have traditionally been used for antidiabetic effects, and they may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Those taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.

  • Bridelia species may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).

  • Bridelia species may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that lower blood pressure.

  • Because Bridelia species contain estrogen-like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.

  • Bridelia species may also interact with agents that cause uterine contractions, agents that affect the immune system, antibiotics, antidiarrheals, antifungals, anti-inflammatory agents, antimalarial agents, or heart rate-regulating agents.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Bridelia species may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.

  • Bridelia species may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.

  • Bridelia species may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure.

  • Because Bridelia species contain estrogen-like chemicals, the effects of other agents believed to have estrogen-like properties may be altered.

  • Bridelia species may also interact with agents that cause uterine contractions, antibacterials, antidiarrheals, antifungals, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antimalarial herbs and supplements, antioxidants, heart rate-regulating herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that affect the immune system, and iron.

Author Information

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

References

Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.

  1. Ajaiyeoba EO, Abiodun OO, Falade MO, et al. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of 20 plants used in Nigerian antimalarial ethnomedicine. Phytomedicine 2006;13(4):295-298. View Abstract
  2. Gangoue-Pieboji J, Baurin S, Frere JM, et al. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity. Phytother Res 2007;21(3):284-287. View Abstract
  3. Jayasinghe L, Kumarihamy BM, Jayarathna KH, et al. Antifungal constituents of the stem bark of Bridelia retusa. Phytochemistry 2003;62(4):637-641. View Abstract
  4. Kotigadde S, Jose S, Zachariah A, et al. Antibacterial activity of Bridelia
    scandens. J Commun Dis 2005;37(2):135-137. View Abstract
  5. Lin J, Puckree T, Mvelase TP. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of some medicinal plants used by Zulu traditional healers. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79(1):53-56. View Abstract
  6. Magassouba FB, Diallo A, Kouyate M, et al. Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;114(1):44-53. View Abstract
  7. Mehare ID, Hatapakki BL. Antiinflammatory activity of bark of Bridelia retusa spreng. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2003;65(4):410-411.
  8. Mostafa M, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M,et al. Phosphodiesterase-I inhibitor quinovic acid glycosides from Bridelia ndellensis. Nat Prod Res 2006;20(7):686-692. View Abstract
  9. Mpiana PT, Tshibangu DS, Shetonde OM, et al. In vitro antidrepanocytary actvity (anti-sickle cell anemia) of some congolese plants. Phytomedicine 2007;14(2-3):192-195. View Abstract
  10. Ngueyem TA, Brusotti G, Caccialanza G,et al. The genus Bridelia: a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124(3):339-349. View Abstract
  11. Ngueyem TA, Brusotti G, Marrubini G, et al. Validation of use of a traditional remedy from Bridelia grandis (Pierre ex Hutch) stem bark against oral Streptococci. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;120(1):13-16. View Abstract
  12. Njamen D, Magne Ndé CB, Tanee Fomum Z, et al. Effects of the extracts of some tropical medicinal plants on estrogen inducible yeast and Ishikawa screens, and on ovariectomized Wistar rats. Pharmazie 2008;63(2):164-168. View Abstract
  13. Olajide O, Okpako DT, Makinde JM. Anti-inflammatory properties of Bridelia
    ferruginea stem bark. Inhibition of lipopolysaccaride-induced septic shock and vascular permeability. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88(2-3):221-224. View Abstract
  14. Sueyoshi E, Liu H, Matsunami K, et al. Bridelionosides A-F: Megastigmane glucosides from Bridelia
    glauca f. balansae. Phytochemistry 2006;67(22):2483-2493. View Abstract
  15. Theophile D, Laure NE, Benoit NT, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate stem bark extract of Bridelia scleroneura (Euphorbiaceae). Inflammopharmacology. 2006;14(1-2):42-47. View Abstract

The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.